(Sandipan Dey, 26 December 2016)
 In this article, the statistics concepts for the probability integral transformation along with its applications will be discussed.
Probability Integral Tranformation
 First let’s convince ourselves about the fact that a continuous random variable transformed by its own CDF with always have a U(0,1) distribution. It can be proved as shown in the below figure.
 Let’s draw n=1000 i.i.d. samples from X∼Exp(λ=5) using R function rexp and then transform the variable by its own CDF F_X(x)=1−exp(−λx), s.t. Y=F_X(X). We can see from the below figure that F_Y is the distribution function of Y∼U(0,1).
n < 1000 lambda < 5 x < rexp(n, lambda) y < 1  exp(lambda*x) F_y < cumsum(table(y))/sum(table(y)) par(mfrow=c(1,3)) hist(x, col='blue') plot(F_y, col='green', pch=19, xlab='y', ylab=expression('F'['Y']), main=expression(paste('Y=1e'^ paste('',lambda,'X')))) plot(ecdf(y), col='red', pch=19, xlab='y', ylab='ECDF(y)')

Application
 Now, suppose that we have at our disposal only a function that can generate i.i.d. samples from X∼U(0,1)X∼U(0,1) distribution, now we want to use the function to generate i.i.d. samples from some other distribution (let’s say from X∼Exp(λ=5) or X∼Geom(p=0.3) or X∼Laplace(μ=0,b=4).
 We can use a U(0,1) random variable transformed by the inverse CDF corresponding to the other distribution to get a random variable with that CDF.
 Let’s use the above facts to draw n=1000 samples from a Y∼ξ(λ=5) distribution, using just the samples drawn from a X∼(0,1) with the R function runif using probability integral transform.
 First draw n samples from X∼(0,1).
 Transform Y=F_X(X) with the inverse CDF −(1/λ)ln(1−x).
 Now Y has the same distribution as 1−exp(−λy).
 Let’s compare the histograms obtained with the samples drawn from Y∼ξ(λ=5) using probability integral transform and with the R function rexp. As expected, histogram looks almost exactly the same, as can be seen from the following figure.Also, the times taken to draw 10000 such samples are quite comparable.
 Similarly let’s use probability integral transform to draw samples from Y∼Geom(p=0.1) using only X∼U(0,1) transformed with the inverse CDF
ln(1−x)/ln(1−p) of the geometric distribution, since the geometric distribution
has the CDF 1−(1−p)^x and then compare with the ones drawn using R function rgeom. As expected, histogram looks almost exactly the same, as can be seen from the following figure. Also, the times taken to draw 10000 such samples are quite comparable.
 Again let’s use probability integral transform to draw samples from Y∼Laplace(μ=0,b=4) using only X∼U(0,1) transformed with the following inverse CDF.
since the laplace distribution has the following CDF
Then compare with the ones drawn using R function rlaplace. As expected, histogram looks almost exactly the same, as can be seen from the following figure. Also, the times taken to draw 10000 such samples are quite comparable.
 Finally let’s say we don’t have the function rnorm but we only have the ICDF qnorm and we want to sample from a normal distribution with a given mean and variance using the probability integral transform.
 Then let’s compare the histogram with those generated using rnorm. As can be seen, they look exactly same. Also, the times taken to draw 10000 such samples are quite comparable.
Advertisements